US President Joe Biden clarified the economic ban on Iran in an interview aired on the 7th of February. Until Iran accepts to follow the aspects of the nuclear deal (JCPOA) of 2015, the economic ban on Iran will not be lifted he said.
The nuclear weapon deal or JCPOA 2015
The Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action is the full form of JCPOA. It was between the Islamic Republic of Iran, The European Union, and the group of world powers constituting The United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, France, and China plus Germany. In short, They are called P5+1. They are the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
In a view to decrease the huge economic loss due to sanctions, the Iranian government accepted this agreement.
According to JCPOA in 2015,
On one hand, The US will lift the ban on all domestic and foreign companies’ business activities in Iran.
On the other hand, Iran must not use enriched uranium above 3.67% purity. It is very low than the required amount for an atom bomb.
Other frameworks of the JCPOA
Conditions for P5+1
- Lifting all other sanctions by the end of 12 months
- If Iran fails to follow the agreement, restore all sanctions
- United Nations will cancel all sanctions on Iran
Conditions for Iran
- Installed Centrifuges from 19000 to 6104 for 10 years
- Uranium purity by 3.67% for 15 years
- The stockpile of uranium from 10000 to less than 300 kilograms. It must be of 3.67% purity for 15 years
- Arak facility to the minimal amount of plutonium and leaving it as a heavy water reactor for 15 years
- Also, Allowing inspection in all nuclear facilities.
The United States and Iran have no direct relation. They communicate through their respective protecting power nations. Pakistan is the protecting power nation to Iran in Pakistan Embassy, Washington, United States and it is Swiss embassy for the United States in Tehran, Iran.
Iran had economic sanctions since 1995. In 2015 US negotiated with Iran on nuclear trade. It is called JCPOA and the economic ban was on for Iran. The ban was lifted in 2016.
In 2018,Donald Trump withdrew from JCPOA and reimposed the sanctions again.
Eventually, the Iranian government started boycotting JCPOA by increasing the purity of uranium up to 20 percent. Iran even tried to block the Strait of Hormuz which is the only seaway of the Persian Gulf to the open sea.
Motive of P5+1 nations
Evidently, it is very clear that P5+1 nations wanted to suppress Iran from enriching its nuclear power.
In nuclear technology, Iran had a slow but gradual improvement. Further, This nuclear deal aims to put an end to this technology. This leaves Iran armless.
According to International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA), Iran’s current nuclear activities;
Firstly, Iran increased the uranium stockpile limit in July 2019 and the heavy water limit in November 2019.
Secondly, In July 2019 Iran enriched uranium up to 4.5% purity. In addition, Iran accumulated enriched uranium using advanced centrifuges.
Thirdly, there was the transfer of uranium gas from Natanz to Fordow in November 2019. This was against JCPOA. Conversely, Trump announced no sanctions to Iran’s Fordow facility. Iran announced that it will not follow the JCPOA anymore.
A note on Joe Biden
Finally, Joe Biden took over the US administration. He wanted to continue the deal as per the same terms and conditions agreed by Iran in 2015.
Final thoughts for Iran, JCPOA & the US
The fate of the nuclear power of Iran lies in the JCPOA. Under the New administration of Joe Biden, there was hope for Iran. On the contrary, Biden demanded Iran to follow the old regulations. This has let the Iranian’s down.
Article by–Indhirani K
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Featured image credit– America.CGTN