WMO celebrates World Meteorological Day on March 23rd of every year and IMD deals with the meteorology related issues in India.
WMO- World Meteorological Organization
Eventually, this year World Meteorological Organization(WMO) which was established in 1950, is celebrating its 71st year of commencement. The theme is “The Ocean, Our Climate and Weather.” WMO is an NGO (Non-Governmental Organization). It deals with issues regarding meteorology, hydrology, and related geophysical sciences across the globe. Currently, there are 193 countries with territories as members of WMO.
Initially WMO was called as International Meteorological Organization (IMO). IMO started in 1873 in the Vienna International Meteorological Congress meeting. The aim of the commitee is to have a permanent committee to maintain record weather information and share those details among the countries. It was renamed as WMO in 1950.
Meteorology in India- Indian Meteorological Department (IMD)
IMDs’ headquarters is in New Delhi, India established in 1875. IMD works under the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India.
It takes care of meteorological observations, weather forecasting, and seismology(study of earthquakes and related phenomena). IMD is responsible for the detection, naming, alert and warning distribution of tropical cyclones in the areas of
- The northern Indian Ocean
- Malacca Straits
- Bay of Bengal
- Arabian Sea
- Persian Gulf
IMD is one among WMOs’ six Regional Meteorological Centres in the world. Currently, the Director-General of Meteorology in IMD is Dr Mrutyunjay Mohapatra
Notable achievements in meteorology by India
IMD was the first organization in India to deploy a message switching computer for supporting its global data exchange.
It was the first weather bureau of a developing country to develop and maintain its satellite system.
There are plenty of observation stations across India and in Antarctica. The first observatory was established in India in the year 1785 in Calcutta by the British East Indian Company.
IMD collaborates with other agencies such as
- Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology,
- National Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting and
- National Institute of Ocean Technology.
- Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
In collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO), the IMD also uses the IRS series and the Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) used for weather monitoring the Indian subcontinent.
The IMD launched System of Aerosol Monitoring and Research (SAMAR) in January 2016 launched to study the concentration of Black carbon, radiative properties of aerosols, environmental visibility, and their climatological impacts
The theme for the meteorological day of 2021 -“The Ocean, Our Climate and Weather.”
The ocean covers almost 70 per cent of the planet’s earth. It becomes responsible for changes happening in the climate and weather conditions on the remaining land portion of the earth.
The ocean keeps our planet warm by absorbing solar radiations and distributing heat around the planet by evaporation and also distributing rain phenomena.
Except the equatorial region, weather condition across the globe is determined by ocean currents. The movements of ocean water in a continuous flow, created largely by surface winds are called ocean currents. They regulate the global climate by transporting warm water and precipitation from the equator toward the poles and cold water from the poles back to the tropics
Problems in oceans, climatic and weather conditions
Hence the ocean, climate, and weather conditions are an interrelated phenomena. Due to global warming and industrialization, pollution has developed into a major problem in today’s issue. Hence ocean level raising, changing climatic and weather conditions, elnino phenomena etc. arises. Sudden heavy rainfall, snowfall, high temperatures during summer and extreme cold during winter.
Furthermore, Ocean currents are the continuous, predictable, directional movement of seawater. In addition, gravity, wind (Coriolis Effect), and water density are factors of ocean currents. At the same time, this abiotic system is responsible for the transfer of heat, variations in biodiversity, and Earth’s climate system.
Therefore global warming plays an important role in determining the earth’ climate or weather phenomena by altering the ocean currents. Not only humans animals on land and marine life also suffer by losing their habitat, food, etc., wander and die in vain.
Aim of WMO for the next decade
Finally, the theme for the year 2021 is “The Ocean, Our Climate and Weather”. Eventually, it is connecting the ocean climate and weather parameters. Additionally they believe that this will give a better picture on the ongoing environmental problems. Also, in this decade(2021 to 2030) WMO aims at sustainable development through ocean science. During this decade, there is going to be a complete study and research on oceans, its features, geography, ocean currents, economy, usage, pollution, upgradation, marine life, etc. These researches will lead to an abrupt development in oceanic ecosystem and hence for the better environment.
Authored by Indhirani K
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